“Divine Comedy” is a famous epic work studied by a generation of generations of literary scholars and poetry lovers. As in many medieval opus, in search of thoughts about religion and society. He was a true Christian believer and had very strong political convictions. You can often find an assessment of some historical events and personalities, and “Hell” – the first part of the “Divine Comedy” – is also no exception. Let’s see what real people Dante considered worthy of eternal torment.
10. Pope Celestine V
Pietro Angeli del Murrone, who became Pope Celestine V in 1294, is supposedly one of the showers present at the entrance to hell. Dante calls him the one who “denied from the great portion in his faint-heartedness”. The authors of the Divine Comedy designate voluntary resignation 161 days after the beating.
It was not only a sin against God, but also a crime against society. If you read the Divine Comedy, then he wants to break it or to avoid responsibility for its observance. Dante placed Celestine in the prejudices of hell, where the souls of people did not deal with life and good intentions, and their own interests, as well as their thirst for the blind and the wasps.
9. Julius Caesar
He was to rule the world of divine providence, and his death signified the end of the unity of Italy. So why did the poet send the emperor to hell?
Yuri Caesar is in the first round, he is called “philosophy, teaching, mathematics, honest questions and politics.”
It was completely devout Christian. He had to live in a place only in a pale shadow, similar to Paradise. According to Dante, Limb is a castle surrounded by a green meadow, with seven gates symbolizing virtues.
The people in Limbe had no Greek origin, that they lived before the birth of Christ. Jesus Christ descended into Hell and brought salvation to the righteous in Limba.
8. Francesca da Rimini
Francesca da Rimini meets Dante in the second round of volunteers to eat fornicators and adulterers. Francesca lived in the middle of the thirteenth century and was the daughter of Lords Guido da Polenta of Ravenna. The father forced the daughter to marry Giovanni Malatesta, the eldest son of Lord Malatesta da Baruchkio, the ruler of Rimini, hoping for political union. Francesca fell in love with his younger brother, Giovanni Paolo, who is also in the second round. Giovanni caught lovers on the spot and stabbed both with a sword.
The Divine Comedy tells about the passion of Lancelot and Guinevere, the wife of King Arthur. Condemn sin, adultery and despising lustful love, Dante still hints that Giovanni is preparing a far more terrible punishment in the ninth round of the fratricides. Besides, we have no eternal storm.
7. Filippo Argenti
Philipo Argenti was a famous politician and “black” Guelph. Dante meets him in the fifth round of hell – the Stygian swamp of angry and lazy people.
Roman empires, in particular, strengthened religious Christianity. In the XIII century, everything happened in Florence (the birthplace of Dante), which lasted until the end of the century, while the forces of Karl Valois did not support the “blacks”, and then the “white” ones. »Subjected to brutal persecution. Being a “white” Guelph, Dante suffered greatly from Argenti himself, who even pursued in exile.
In Argentina, he meets Dante on the River Styx, and he responds to his enemy: “Cry, net, topless, damn spirit, drink the eternal wave!” After which Argenti is looking for other convicted insane souls to pieces.
6. Friedrich I.I.
Even the emperor did not escape the conviction of Dante. Frederick II was one of the most powerful rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. Nevertheless, despite all the services to Italy, in fact, the creation of the literary-Italian language, Frederick is in the same spirit as in the sixth circle, along with epithets in the fire tombs, possibly because of his repeated radiation. churches and anathema.
After Frederick sent him to the Crusade, ignoring the church ban to participate in any acts on behalf of Jesus Christ. The church was supposed to free Jerusalem from the Muslims and declare itself its king. The hatred of the clergy to Frederick was so strong that the death of the emperor caused just unrestrained jubilation.
5. Pope Nicholas III
Among all the Catholic priests were all. In the thirteenth century, thus was Pope Nicholas III, deserving the most severe punishment for the sin of simony.
Pope Nicholas III came from a noble family and more and more in bad faith tried to promote their relatives through the ranks. It also served to strengthen his power. Dante placed Nicholas III in the eighth circle of hell, where all Simonites exploded upside down, and their steps lit a fire.
4. Bertrand de Born
Bertrand de Born, convicted of sowing discord. Heinrich Plantagenet (“The Young King”) against his father Henry II of England.
Bertrand led the poetic elements, where all the instigators separately are always tormented by gutting. The souls of sinners relentlessly go in a circle. The fragmented head of Bertrand de Born symbolizes the split and the bloody war between father and son.
3. Guido da Montefeltro
Another reference to the hated Dante Pape and his entourage. Gedo da Montefeltro, the commander and adviser, was posed by the poet along with sly advisers in a deep reve.
Pope Boniface VIII, wanting to get rid of enemies, especially from the Colonna family, asked for help from Montefeltro, and he advised him on how to deceive Palestine, the ownership of Colonna. To call on papa to declare a false amnesty to them, and after capturing the fortress to execute. After that, he took the monastic post in the Franciscan order. Although Dante was aware of this, he did not bring true repentance.
The policy of insidious policy of perpetual wandering around the eighth circle within the undying fire. In the twenty-seventh song “Ada”, Guido talks about Dante when he was at the death of St. Francis, and Black Cherub appeared immediately and Unteles Montefeltro in the depths of Ada.
2. Ugolino della Gerardeska
In the ninth circle, there are traitors condemned to perpetual exploration in the icy lake Kocyt. Here the souls of sinners are frozen.
In one of Dante’s circles, there is Count Ugolino, who eats Archbishop Ruggieri degli Ubyaldini. It was a prerequisite for raising a popular uprising.
We have everything that is needed so that they are not guilty sons and grandchildren. The key to the tower was thrown into the river, and he was surprised by hunger.
1. Brutus and Cassius
In the heart of the nine circles in the ice funnel is Lucifer himself in the form of a monstrous beast with three heads and six wings. In the ugly maws of a fallen angel three icy souls are tormented. Judas Iscariot, Guy Cassius, Longin, and Mark Junius Brutus. In the history of mankind and deserve the most severe punishment for their heinous crimes.
As we have already mentioned, Julius Caesar was the God-chosen ruler of the world, and not only as emperor. According to the poet, Caesar was to be the free distributor of Christianity in Rome, and Brother and Cassius were condemned to eternal torment.
Throughout the Divine Comedy, Dante has many other characters who are also interesting from the point of view of history and literature, including Virgil and the Beloved of the Poet Beatrice. This is just a work of art, but a journey in a circle.